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Serbian research on the biodiversity, occurrence and toxicity of cyanobacteria in waterbodies, as well as effects of cyanobacteria on water quality and human health, has been performed since the late 19th century. Most of the research has been carried out on rivers, reservoirs used for drinking water supply and irrigation, and on fishponds, and the results have been summarized in the Serbian Cyano Data Base. Around 70 species of cyanobacteria were detected and 24 of them formed blooms. A large number of isolates are now being cultivated in the Novi Sad Cyanobacterial Culture Collection. Furthermore, epidemiological studies in Serbia have showed a correlation between blooms and a higher incidence of primary liver cancer, and potentially other cancers. Recently, a bloom incident in the reservoir supplying water to the city of Užice gained much public and scientific attention.