Awareness of the issue of the presence of potentially toxic cyanobacteria started to develop in France in 1991 following work in the Brittany area and in 1998 in all of the French territory. Given the extent of the proliferations – nearly 70 % of the freshwater lakes and reservoirs examined contained hepatotoxins – the French authorities, since 2003, took various measures for the management of water bodies used for recreational activities and for the production of drinking water. Microcystins, anatoxins, and more recently cylindrospermopsin (in 2006) and saxitoxins (in 2008), formally identified in France and often in mixture of several variants. To date, no case of human poisoning has been attributed to cyanotoxins in France. It has only been reported the death of dogs associated with the presence of anatoxin-a and benthic cyanobacteria.